Nitration of Toluene (Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution).
Here's the general reaction for the nitration of benzene. So we start off with benzene, and to it, you add concentrated nitric and concentrated sulfuric acids. And that puts a nitro group onto your benzene ring, in place of this proton. Let's look at the mechanism for the nitration of benzene. So we start over here with the dot structure for nitric acid. And here's the dot structure for.
World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect.
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals.Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the second (n)-annulene ((6)-annulene).It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is responsible for the aroma around petrol.
Let's look at the general reaction for electrophilic aromatic substitution. So we start with the benzene ring, and we react benzene with a molecule that contains an electrophile in there. And what happens in electrophilic aromatic substitution. We're going to substitute the electrophile for a proton on our benzene ring. And so over here, we can.
Reactions: 2 1(nitration, halogenation (bromination)). In the reaction, first a nitration is done by using concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid. The nitro group is meta direction.
The Nitration Mechanism (a) Formation of nitronium ion (i) The sulfuric acid protonates the nitric acid. (ii) The protonated nitric acid loses a molecule of water to form nitronium ion (b) Nitration of toluene (i) Nitronium ion attacks the aromatic ring. Attack occurs at all possible positions to form resonance stabilized carbonation.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) is where benzene acts as a nucleophile to replace a substituent with a new electrophile. That is, benzene needs to donate electrons from inside the ring. So, benzene becomes less reactive in EAS when deactivating groups are present on it. Deactivating groups are often good electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs). These compounds you listed look like this.